Applications of GIS

Application of Geographical Information System (GIS)

This article is showing application of Geographical Information System (GIS) in different fields.

Geo-spatial data

It can be used to map the spatial location of real-world features and visualize the spatial relationships among them. Map features are logically organized into a set of layers or themes of information. Common considerations for organizing layers are-
  • Feature Type: Typically, points, line and polygon features are stored in separate layers.
  • Logical Group: Features are organized logically by what they represent.
  • Intended use: organized application specific
Geo-visualization represents a set of tools or techniques used to view, analyze, edit and assess the geographic features and their relationships on the earth’s surface. It does not only offer the possibility to show past developments, but also to visualize possible future scenarios based on current decisions.

Geo-processing is a set of information transformation tools used to manipulate spatial data. The geo-processing functions take information from existing data sets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived data sets.

Applications of GIS 

GIS is not just an advanced information system, but a combination of science and technology. GIS has several inter-related distinct disciplines such as geography, environmental studies, engineering, health, geology, political science, archaeology, sociology, public administration, biology/ecology, and economics.

Geography

Geography is broadly concerned with the earth and its features. It helps to understand the world and what is happening in our everyday lives at country, region, state or street level. The location issues can be easily solved using geospatial analysis.

Environmental Studies

GIS is widely used by decision makers, planners, scientists for management of water resources, forests, agriculture lands; disaster management and mitigation, waste management and environmental impact analysis or trace pollutants.

Engineering

GIS enables engineers to easily manage, reuse, and analyze data; and helps to save time and resources. Large or medium scale maps along with geospatial techniques are used for urban planning, regional planning, route location identification for highways and development of public facilities.

Health

GIS can be used in health services to transform the health of a community. With GIS and spatial analysis, you can assess site service locations and identify vulnerable populations. The GIS outputs will be better outcomes for patients, stakeholders, and for the public.

Geology

GIS can be used to analyze soils and strata and to study geologic features. With the application of GIS in geological mapping, it becomes very easy for surveyors to create three dimensional (3D) displays of geographic features for any area with precise and desired scaling.

Political science

Political Scientists use GIS in variety of applications that is from operations and public outreach to redistricting and campaigning. A GIS map helps the users to visualize the relationships, patterns, and trends to understand the constituency and electoral process.

Archaeology

GIS facilitates an exciting and powerful research tool for Archaeologists to analyze depositional patterns as well as catalog and quantify artifacts. GIS can provide density analysis of selected artifact types across a site/region; analysis of settlement patterns, recording individual stones in a monument, site management and archaeological predictive modeling.

Sociology

GIS can integrate the social and territorial information both quantitatively and qualitatively. Through mapping and spatial analysis, researchers can disseminate the information to the public, can promote events or projects, or simply present their findings.

Public administration

GIS applications in public administration are limitless, some of the examples are given below:

  • Street network: GIS is widely used for car navigation (routing and scheduling), locating houses and streets, transport planning etc.
  • Facilities management: GIS can address the issues such as planning facility maintenance, locating underground pipes and cables, development of public facilities, water and waste water networks, telecommunication network services etc.
  • Land information system: GIS can help in land acquisition, zoning of land use, taxation, cadastral administration etc.

Biology/Ecology

GIS can be used for various aspects of habitat description, delineation and monitoring. Overlaying different maps can help the foresters to easily see the forest as an ecosystem and allows them to manage it efficiently. GIS enables to determine the areas and species that are protected poorly. Therefore, GIS can be used for any number of wildlife management and coastal management applications. 

Economics

Integration of GIS with demographic and market data, provides a base to understand all aspects of a place. Through GIS we can keep a track of the customer location, businesses sites, target marketing campaigns of a place and analyze that how it can grow stronger and more attractive to people and businesses.

With above application of GIS, it can also conclude that there is no limit for GIS application. GIS can be applied to any field/area for analysis where spatial or space data are playing significant role.

Comments

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