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Application of GIS in Groundwater Discharge Monitoring

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In this article ground water discharge/seepage in to coastal ecosystem is discussed. As ground water discharge into the sea water, it brings changes in chemical as well as nutrients properties of sea water. So Impact of ground water discharge into sea water is assessed using GIS and remote sensing technology to ascertain the affect on coastal ecosystem. The coastal ecosystems are affected by dissolved nutrient inputs from the circulating offshore water, river runoff, and groundwater seepage. Most of the research studies documented that groundwater seepage has a major influence on nutrient levels on the fringing reef in the areas where river input is not significant. Groundwater indicates higher concentrations of land-derived nutrients than seawater and river water. To estimate the submarine groundwater discharge, radon monitoring approach is quite promising. The use of radon as an submarine groundwater discharge tracer is related to the fact that radon activity in groundwater is much h…

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Coastal Studies

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Remote Sensing and GIS is very useful tool for mapping historical changes in coastal system and to predict future conditions of coastal ecosystem. Benthic cover is one of the important feature of coastal ecosystem, it plays significant role in maintaining coastal activities and its environment. Effective mapping of benthic cover provides many important information for maintain and development of coastal ecosystem. Mapping Changes in Benthic coverCoral reefs need our attention because of the high biodiversity and their key role in the tropical marine biosphere. These fragile ecosystems are under growing pressure from land-based sources of pollution as the result of increasing deforestation, soil loss, and excess use of fertilizers and pesticides. Coastal coral reefs, like other marine coastal ecosystems are increasingly exposed to growing loads of nutrients, sediments and pollutants discharged from the land. The deteriorating water quality from marine pollution and coastal development …

Remote Sensing and GIS in Simulation and Prediction Perspective

The rapid growth of megacities causes severe social, economical and ecological issues. This growth can be nurtured in a sustainable way. The challenge for land professionals is to provide the megacity ‘managers’, both political and professional, with appropriate ‘actionable intelligence’ that is up-to-date, citywide and in a timely manner to support more proactive decision making that encourages more effective sustainable development.  Spatial data has become indispensable for numerous aspects of urban development, planning and management. The increasing importance of remote sensing and GIS has been due to recent strides in acquiring spatial information (especially satellite Images and positioning), management (utilizing geographic information systems and database tools) and access (witness the growth in web mapping services), as well as the development of analytical techniques such as high resolution mapping of urban environments. These more efficient techniques can lead to a wider di…

Application GIS and Remote Sensing for Urban Growth Impact on Transport System

Remote sensing is a rich source of information for urban change management due to its synoptic and periodic observation capability. Over the years, images of the land use environment including urban change have accumulated, presenting an opportunity to understand change processes that have led to changes recorded by the imagery. Integration of GIS with remote sensing data is advantageous for urban change studies. It provides big scope for modeling urban growth and a platform to integrate models and policy to understand urban growth. Complementary analysis methods need to be explored to extract other information potentially useful for urban growth management. Rapid urban change and rise in population influence the urban form and design. Urban form and design affect the access to transit service- such as core city, which usually has a grid street pattern and enhances access to transit servicewhereas the suburban area, limits access to transit service due to street network and neighborhoo…

Advantage of GIS

Advantage of Geographical Information SystemGIS is very advantageous system/tool especially in geographic location based studies and planning. GIS is an integration of many system and methods that make GIS advantageous over the traditional process of geographic data creation, analysis and display. GIS has several advantages over the other systems such computer aided design and drawing (CADD), automated mapping (AM) etc. 
Below are advantages over other systems Advantage over Tradition Maps (Printed Maps)Traditional Maps have to be printed and in relatively large formats. Although maps can be compiled into an Atlas but they are not seamless and one has to compare one page of Atlas with another. All the maps have to be printed at fixed scales. Maps cannot provide all the annotation details in the legend with respect to shading and place names Maps always have a scale bar, even though it is still not easy to calculate the lengths of features represented on the map and whereas it is difficu…

Functions and Uses of GIS

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GIS comprises many functions and these functions can be used in variety of applications. The GIS functions facilitate some basic reply those are below. The GIS process provides location based information, which helps to locate the particular location of objects. The location can be defined by longitude and latitude or X/Y and this also can have attribute information such as place name etc.The GIS functions also support to find the locations under certain conditions such as industries within 5 km from the sewerage treat plant.These functions also help to assess the changes on specific location over the time.It also supports to analyze the spatial relationship among objects with their geographic locations. The functions also provide model based queries, such as optimum path, suitable land for industry development etc.

Data Collection and CaptureRemote sensing images, existing maps, tabular data, ground survey, internet etc. are used to collect data as input data to GIS process. These inpu…

Application of Remote Sensing in Mapping

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Mapping Through Remote SensingMapping is an important component for management of land resources. Remote sensing data can be used to create information in the form of mapping of any given area. Natural features such as such as forest, grass land, water bodies includes river, pond, swamps, ocean, desert areas, mountain/hilly areas etc. can representedwith some other feature in the form of mapping. As well as manmade features, include residential, commercial, industrial and transportation network, combined with administrative boundary can be represented spatially in the form map using satellite images. As base maps, topographic maps and thematic maps are primary requirement for monitoring, evaluating, planning and management of land resources both manmade and natural. Elevation maps can be very important in planning and management of many applications such as water resources, forest resources, and large infrastructure.
The Demand of remote sensing images is rapidly growing in production …

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Hydrological Studies

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Hydrology encompasses the study of water on and beneath the surface of the earth, occurrence of water, movement of water, physical and chemical properties of water and its relation with the surrounding environment. 'Hydro' word comes from the Greek word, which means water and logy means study. So study of water can be defined as ‘hydrology’. Hydrology studies indirectly also related to many other studies such as landuse/land cover studies, forestry, agriculture, since existence of water in these studies play significant role. Changes in hydrology are dynamic, it changes with years as well as with change in season and bring huge impact on surrounding environment. Therefore require regular and sometimes frequent observations to assess and control the negative impact on hydrology of any given area. Satellite remotely sensed observations enhance understanding of hydrological studies and impact of surrounding environment on hydrological processes by having global spatial and time se…

QGIS For Polygon Creation

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Polygon Feature creation using QGIS
This article will discuss about the creation of polygon feature using GIS.
Open QGIS by clicking on Start then go to All Programs and then clickQGIS Desktop 3.8.3
Open the georeferenced toposheet via Layer then clickAdd Layer followed by Add Raster Layer Following pop up window (Data source manager raster) will open. Browse and select the georeferenced toposheet for polygon features (polygon is used to demarcate area features like built-up, forest, agriculture land, administrative boundaries, waterbody etc) creation via Raster dataset and Add button. Georeferenced toposheet will open. Now for polygon layer creation, click on Layer then click Create layer followed by New Shapefile Layer New Shapefile layer window will popup Now In the above popup window define the File name. Select Geometry type - ‘Polygon’ as here we want to create polygon layer. Now specify Coordinate reference system (CRS) same as toposheet. For this click on Select CRS. A CRS selector popu…