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Showing posts with the label GIS Analysis

Geo-Spatial Technology for Urban Sprawl Projection/Prediction

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Urban sprawl , an outcome of socioeconomic development and population under certain conditions, is continuously increasing. It becomes a major issue facing by many metropolitan cities of developing and developed countries.  Urban sprawl is often took as scattered suburban development that create and increase several issues-  Stress on basic amenities  Traffic problems,  Reduce local resources, and  No more open space  It is important to appropriately illustrate urban sprawl in order to prepare a complete understanding of the causes and effects of urban sprawl processes. Urban sprawl is often assessed and characterized based on major socio-economic factors such as  Growth in Population  Transportation/Commuting Costs ,  Employment Shifts  Revenue Generation in City  Commercial Development Status   Urban sprawl, in most cases associated with poor land use plan and economic development and activities.  This above approach based on socio-economic factors cannot effectively identify the i

GIS Spatial Analysis-Land Use Mix Spatial Data

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Introduction GIS is a versatile tool and can be used for variety of application as well as creation of spatial data . It can be used to create elevation data , population density , water quality , urban density , air quality etc. and at the same time these data can be spatially represented . The advantage of GIS spatial data, that it can be analyzed to assess the impact on neighborhood or surrounding environment. GIS has various functions , spatial data in both formats such as raster and vector . Here in this article GIS is used to create distribution of commercial and industrial activity within the city to find out the impact on travel demand. For this a spatial data named land use mix created using GIS spatial analytical tool. Land use mix index is used to ascertain the level of commercial activity in each ward of Jaipur city. This indicator is very important to know the level of commercial and industrial activities (in the form of At present, there is no available data s

QGIS for Buffer Analysis

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Introduction GIS provide many tools for understanding and analysis of spatial data base . GIS has capabilities to analyze feature itself as well as its surrounding area and impact of surrounding area on that earth feature.  GIS functions play significant role in the data creation, edit, manipulation and analysis. There are ‘n’ number of function available in GIS based on mathematical, statistical and spatial approach such proximity analysis, buffer analysis, spatial analysis etc.  Buffer analysis is used to delineate areas in proximity to geographic spatial feature . In this a buffer is generated around that existing geographic feature by using distance parameters and this buffer area is used to identify and analyze spatial features comes into that buffer area or outside that buffer area.  In the buffer analysis a buffer area of specified distance from geographic feature is created then this buffer area can be used to specify the spatial features fall in that buffer area and featu

Interpolation Process of Spatial Data in GIS Environment using QGIS

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Introduction Continuous spatial data is very important in many applications for spatial analysis. So for such analysis, acquiring continuous spatial data is very difficult, costly and usually takes very long time for study area. In case, if one needs to collect/create continuous data then field sampling and observations is very common practice, such as water sampling for quality analysis . But during this field sampling process, it is nearly impossible to collect data from each and every spot of field, usually samples collected at certain distance. So this distance gap/interval between two samples/more samples is not possible to cover as well as very tedious and time consuming. In this case, some representative samples such as water samples from all well locations or pollution parameters from air monitoring stations will be collected and interpolation method is deployed to create continuous layer. Accuracy of interpolated spatial data depends upon the quantity and spatial distribut

Geo-Spatial Technology for Wetland Mapping- Explanation with Case Study

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Remote Sensing and GIS in Wetland Mapping Wetland mapping provides useful and important information for assessment of water resources and also for conservation and management of wetland.  Remote Sensing and GIS techniques have huge potential for mapping, monitoring and assessment of wetland resources. There are better options to the users for wetland mapping, due to advancement in remote sensing and GIS technologies.  As variety of remote sensing images are available with better and finder spatial and temporal resolution . As well as stereo satellite images are also available for effective and accurate mapping and estimation.  These high resolution and stereo images can be used to wetland database and integrated with GIS for further analysis such as change simulation, scenario based predictions for better planning and monitoring.  Wetland Mapping Process through Remotely Sensed Images  In the study the wetlands of Rajasthan falling in different ecological regions ranging from humid

Geo-Spatial Technology for Wetland Mapping

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Inland Wetland Environment  Wetlands refer to lowlands covered with shallow and sometimes temporary or intermittent waters. Wetlands include marshes, swamps, bogs, wet meadows, potholes, shallow lakes and ponds.  However deep lakes, reservoir and permanent waters of streams are not considered as Wetlands. Hence we can say wetlands are transitional lands between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface.  Importance of wetlands  Wetlands posses a great ecological significance in terms of, net primary production, micro-climatic control, ground water recharge and habitat to large number of flora and fauna. It also plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and storage as well as biodiversity conservation. Wetlands help to retain water during dry periods, thus keeping the water table high and relatively stable. Threats to wetlands  Rapidly expanding human population, large scale changes in land use, different development projects and improper use

GIS Application to Assess Relationship of Thermal Stress on Coral Bleaching

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Introduction GIS is an extraordinary tool that can be used for variety of applications. It can used to make harmonic, statistics and analytic relation between two different types of data by incorporation of spatial touch in the process. GIS gives a platform to create, edit, analyze, predict and scenario based analysis of database for monitoring, planning and management. For example impact of population growth on land use change, anthropogenic pressure on surrounding water bodies etc. can be assessed using GIS and its functions.  Coral health is affected by various factors induced by human and natural. Many factors such as runoff, sediment discharge, water quality and sea surface temperature plays significant role in growth of coral. Thermal stresses can be represented by change in sea surface temperature and these stresses may affect the coral health. Coral can be categorized based on health as healthy coral, partial bleached coral, fully bleached coral and dead coral. Increase in

Remote Sensing Application to Assess Thermal Stress in Coastal Ecosystem

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Introduction Thermal variations always affect the natural phenomenon whether it is land or sea. These variations bring changes on the earth features such as reduction in vegetation with increase in temperature. At the same time these thermal variations affect the coastal ecosystem and its habitats. Coral reef , which is also the part of coastal ecosystem, will also change with the variation in temperature.  The ideal temperature for coral growth is 18 o C, however many coral species can survive in water temperatures between 23 o C-29 o C. Bleaching can be induced by short-term exposure (i.e., 1-2 days) to temperature elevations of 3 o C to 4 o C above normal summer ambient values or by long-term exposure (i.e., several weeks) at elevations of 1 o C to 2 o C.  The rise in sea surface temperature can cause stress on Coral reef ecosystem, which may result in coral bleaching followed by coral mortality.  The role of remote sensing and GIS become very significant in such type of mapping an