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Showing posts from May, 2020

GIS Application to Assess Relationship of Thermal Stress on Coral Bleaching

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IntroductionGIS is an extraordinary tool that can be used for variety of applications. It can used to make harmonic, statistics and analytic relation between two different types of data by incorporation of spatial touch in the process. GIS gives a platform to create, edit, analyze, predict and scenario based analysis of database for monitoring, planning and management. For example impact of population growth on land use change, anthropogenic pressure on surrounding water bodies etc. can be assessed using GIS and its functions.  Coral health is affected by various factors induced by human and natural. Many factors such as runoff, sediment discharge, water quality and sea surface temperature plays significant role in growth of coral. Thermal stresses can be represented by change in sea surface temperature and these stresses may affect the coral health. Coral can be categorized based on health as healthy coral, partial bleached coral, fully bleached coral and dead coral. Increase in these…

Remote Sensing Application to Assess Thermal Stress in Coastal Ecosystem

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IntroductionThermal variations always affect the natural phenomenon whether it is land or sea. These variations bring changes on the earth features such as reduction in vegetation with increase in temperature. At the same time these thermal variations affect the coastal ecosystem and its habitats. Coral reef, which is also the part of coastal ecosystem, will also change with the variation in temperature.  The ideal temperature for coral growth is 18oC, however many coral species can survive in water temperatures between 23oC-29oC. Bleaching can be induced by short-term exposure (i.e., 1-2 days) to temperature elevations of 3oC to 4oC above normal summer ambient values or by long-term exposure (i.e., several weeks) at elevations of 1oC to 2oC.  The rise in sea surface temperature can cause stress on Coral reef ecosystem, which may result in coral bleaching followed by coral mortality.  The role of remote sensing and GIS become very significant in such type of mapping and analysis. As remo…

Remote Sensing Application for Coastal Studies

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In this article remote sensing application is used for mapping of physical feature of coastal ecosystem. Coral reefs are mapped using satellite images. Coral reefs are described as live coral, dead coral and coral in bleaching condition.  Need of Coral Mapping Coral reefs are the foundation and primary structure of highly productive and diverse marine ecosystem. This is the reason, Coral reefs are called the “rainforests of the sea,” Corals grow in shallow water close to the shore and thrive within a limited range of temperature, salinity and turbidity. These ecologically and economically important marine habitats have been significantly degraded and destroyed by human and natural disturbance such as global warming or rise in sea surface temperature. When the environmental conditions that the coral requires are altered, the stress placed on the coral often causes bleaching. Decline in the density of zooxanthellae leads to coral bleaching. Large-scale bleaching is predominantly triggere…

GIS APPLICATION FOR LAND MANAGEMENT- Landscape Development Index Integrated in GIS

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IntroductionGIS can be used as planning tool for urban development, transportation planning, land use management etc. GIS provide versatile mathematical and statistical integrated tool for analyzing spatially for proper management. These tools can be used in combination for certain type of analysis and plan accordingly. There are many areas such as assessment of revenue generation for any city/village in GIS can be used as important tool for better management.  Land management is one of the key concern area for local authority to effectively use and manage. As single policy and planning may change land cost and its utilization. There are many factors which affect the land management and most of them are location based factors. So GIS is significant tool to manage and restrict use planning for land management. In GIS many basic methods such as area ratio method, euclidean distance etc. can be integrated to assess the impact of surrounding development and environment on land. Landscape De…

Coordinate Conversion Process in QGIS

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QGIS for Conversion of degree decimal co-ordinates to UTM co-ordinatesThis article will share the conversion process of coordinates such as degree decimal to UTM coordinates. Usually, while collecting the data using GPS from the field, the coordinates are in degree decimal format. For conversion of degree decimal co-ordinates to UTM coordinates, one need to use converter from different website and excel tool. But these tools are also available in GIS software. So in this article process of converting coordinates from degree decimal to UTM in QGIS is shared with screen shots. In the beginning, one has to copy the degree decimal coordinates into Excel file as shown below. The data should have following descriptions such as point ID, Latitude and Longitude. Now save this excel file as Comma Delimited format (.CSV format).

Now Open QGIS by clicking on Start then go to All Programs and then click QGIS Desktop 3.8.3. Following window will open

Open the .CSV file via Layer then click Add Layer…

COVID-19 and GIS

Our world is fighting with COVID-19, which is one of the biggest pandemic. Till the day, the lockdown is one and only effective solution implemented to control spreading of this disease. The Corona Virus affected health system and economy of many developed and developing nation. It also disrupted supply chains, markets, industries of the economy of system.
It is important to take timely measures to stop the spread of corona virus. Therefore role of government become very significant to generate real time information from ground and create awareness among public.
There are several ways of monitoring COVID patients and its spreads. Even information technology can be used by implementing smart intelligence platforms and provide all information digitally for better management. This also helps to health consultant and supporting staff as well as local authorities including police to manage the COVID affected areas.
Geographical Information System (GIS) is one of the technologies, which prov…

Application of GIS in Groundwater Discharge Monitoring

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In this article ground water discharge/seepage in to coastal ecosystem is discussed. As ground water discharge into the sea water, it brings changes in chemical as well as nutrients properties of sea water. So Impact of ground water discharge into sea water is assessed using GIS and remote sensing technology to ascertain the affect on coastal ecosystem.
The coastal ecosystems are affected by dissolved nutrient inputs from the circulating offshore water, river runoff, and groundwater seepage. Most of the research studies documented that groundwater seepage has a major influence on nutrient levels on the fringing reef in the areas where river input is not significant. Groundwater indicates higher concentrations of land-derived nutrients than seawater and river water. 
To estimate the submarine groundwater discharge, radon monitoring approach is quite promising. The use of radon as an submarine groundwater discharge tracer is related to the fact that radon activity in groundwater is much h…

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Coastal Studies

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Remote Sensing and GIS is very useful tool for mapping historical changes in coastal system and to predict future conditions of coastal ecosystem. Benthic cover is one of the important feature of coastal ecosystem, it plays significant role in maintaining coastal activities and its environment. Effective mapping of benthic cover provides many important information for maintain and development of coastal ecosystem. Mapping Changes in Benthic coverCoral reefs need our attention because of the high biodiversity and their key role in the tropical marine biosphere. These fragile ecosystems are under growing pressure from land-based sources of pollution as the result of increasing deforestation, soil loss, and excess use of fertilizers and pesticides. 
Coastal coral reefs, like other marine coastal ecosystems are increasingly exposed to growing loads of nutrients, sediments and pollutants discharged from the land. The deteriorating water quality from marine pollution and coastal development …

Remote Sensing and GIS in Simulation and Prediction Perspective

The rapid urban growth of megacities causes severe social, economical and ecological issues. This growth can be nurtured in a sustainable way. The challenge for land professionals is to provide the megacity ‘managers’, both political and professional, with appropriate ‘actionable intelligence’ that is up-to-date, citywide and in a timely manner to support more proactive decision making that encourages more effective sustainable development.  Spatial data has become indispensable for numerous aspects of urban development, planning and management. The increasing importance of remote sensing and GIS has been due to recent strides in acquiring spatial information (especially satellite Images and positioning), management (utilizing geographic information systems and geo-spatial database tools) and access (witness the growth in web mapping services), as well as the development of analytical techniques such ashigh resolution mapping of urban environments. These more efficient techniques can l…

Geo-spatial Technology for Urban Growth Impact on Transport System

Remote sensing is a rich source of information for urban change management due to its synoptic and periodic observation capability. Over the years, images of the land use environment including urban change have accumulated, presenting an opportunity to understand change processes that have led to changes recorded by the imagery. Integration of GIS with remote sensing data is advantageous for urban change studies
It provides big scope for modeling urban growth and a platform to integrate models and policy to understand urban growth. Complementary analysis methods need to be explored to extract other information potentially useful for urban growth management.
Rapid urban change and rise in population influence the urban form and design. Urban form and design affect the access to transit service- such as core city, which usually has a grid street pattern and enhances access to transit servicewhereas the suburban area, limits access to transit service due to street network and neighborhoo…